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Flow hood Vs Fume hood

flow fume hoods with mushroom on agar plate.

Flow hood vs fume hood which is the right fit for you.

Both types of hoods use a constant flow of air to prevent contamination of the laboratory clean space . Fume hoods prevent hazardous substances from exiting the hood workspace, whereas laminar flow cabinets prevent contaminants from entering the cabinet workspace.

Exit vs Enter

Laminar flow hoods are primarily used to protect work or equipment on the work surface from particulate contamination. Laminar flow hoods achieve this through either horizontal or vertical airflow. This unidirectional air stream moves at a controlled speed that eliminates airflow swirls or turbulence that could create uncontrolled results.

Fume hoods are ventilation systems designed to minimize exposure to hazardous vapors, fumes, and particles. A constant flow of air is drawn into the hood opening, limiting the escape of vapors, fumes, and particles, and then is pulled out through the exhaust.

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Why is 70% Alcohol Better for Disinfecting Mushroom Growing Equipment?

70% isopropyl alcohol used to sanitize still air boxes and mycology tools.

Isopropyl alcohol, particularly in solutions between 60% and 90% alcohol with 10 – 40% purified water, is rapidly antimicrobial against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Once alcohol concentrations drop below 50%, usefulness for disinfection drops sharply. Notably, higher concentrations of alcohol don’t generate more desirable bactericidal, virucidal, or fungicidal properties.

The presence of water is a crucial factor in destroying or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganisms with isopropyl alcohol. Water acts as a catalyst and plays a key role in denaturing the proteins of vegetative cell membranes. 70% IPA solutions penetrate the cell wall more completely which permeates the entire cell, coagulates all proteins, and therefore the microorganism dies. Extra water content slows evaporation, therefore increasing surface contact time and enhancing effectiveness. Isopropyl alcohol concentrations over 91% coagulate proteins instantly. Consequently, a protective layer is created which protects other proteins from further coagulation.

Solutions > 91% IPA do kill bacteria, but sometimes require longer contact times for disinfection, and enable spores to lie in a dormant state without being killed. In this analysis, a 50% isopropyl alcohol solution kills Staphylococcus Aureus in less than 10 seconds (pg. 238), yet a 90% solution with a contact time of over two hours is ineffective. Some disinfectants will kill spores, which are classified as chemical sterilants.

Some bacteria transform into spore cells when external conditions are unfavorable; the result is reduced metabolic activity, higher ‘cidal’ resistance, and immunity from alcohol-based disinfectants. Spores lie dormant, and once conditions become favorable again, the microbe converts back to a vegetative state and grows actively. When examining the effectiveness of IPA, accurately translating its benefits and shortcomings require distinctions of identity, purity, sterility, and intended use. Disinfection, unlike sterilization, does not provide sporicidal attributes.

Proper Uses of Isopropyl Alcohol Require Distinction Between Sanitation, Sterilization, and Disinfection

Isopropyl alcohol is excluded from classification as a high-level disinfectant because of its inability to eradicate bacterial spores and hydrophilic viruses such as polio. Its low-level categorization outlines effectiveness for cleanroom wipedown for disinfecting tools and packaging that must pass into ultra-clean spaces.

70% isopropyl alcohol upholds key requirements for use as a bactericidal in cleanrooms or medical facilities, but also for general purposes. 70% IPA/30% water solutions produce less vapor and odor, therefore reducing risks of toxic fumes or combustion. When isopropyl alcohol reacts with air, light, and oxygen, it forms unstable peroxides which increase the likeliness of explosion, especially when heated with aluminum. IPA volatility increases with storage time and alcohol concentration, especially when exposed to light over multiple years after opening.

70% IPA is less flammable but also offers a more economical price point for general wipe down and large-surface disinfection. Likewise, high-moisture alcohols evaporate slower and increase contact time without becoming immediately dry.

Is Isopropyl Alcohol Effective Against Fungus and Fungal Spores?

Isopropyl alcohol may be intermittently effective against fungus but it is not effective against fungal spores. Treatment of mold and fungus is generally considered a problem of moisture and humidity. Applying a surface level cleaner may have little or no effect on fungal removal. Bleach and hydrogen peroxide are more commonly associated with remedying mold and fungus outbreaks.

Originally posted at PAC

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#sab #stillairbox #growingmushrooms #growingmushroomsathome #uvsanitizer #mushroomgrower #mushroomgrowing #mushroomgrowersunite #mushroomgrowers

#psilocybin  #psilocin #psychedelic

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Extraction Teks

Psilocin

PF TEK SHROOM EXTRACTION
December 28 2002

Solvent: 190 proof ethyl alcohol (common name everclear)

This technique describes how to extract psilocybin from magic mushrooms with pure 190 proof ethyl alcohol and make a magic mushroom liqueur of concentrated psilocybin to effect a powerful psychedelic dose as potent as desired. The entire process involves only the shrooms and alcohol. The alcohol is food grade and acquired from a liquor store.

ALCOHOL EXTRACTION
 

Acquire  at least several grams of dried shroom material to make the process worthwhile and effective. The shrooms need to be thoroughly dry (cracker dry) to allow pulverization.  powder them in a small canister type coffee bean grinder.

In a heat resistant soaking vessel (pyrex glass), combine the shroom powder with several times its volume with 190 proof Everclear (ethanol). This is the “slurry”. Place the soaking vessel in a pan of boiling water. Raising the soaking vessel off the bottom of the hot water pan is a good idea for preventing serious sticking of the good extracts. The slurry will
start to boil. Turn the water boiling pan heat down and let the slurry sit for a few hours at a warm-hot temp. Alcohol boils at a lower temp than water. Watch the temperatures closely. Things can get totally out of hand and ruined very quickly without close attention paid.

While the slurry is still hot, filter it through filter paper. This is probably the most important part. A good filtration will be efficient and will keep most of the shroom material out, making for a clean extraction (clean of  shrooms that is – but heavy on psilocybin). A small lab type vacuum pump powered bottle top filtering funnel with filter disk holder makes it all really
easy and fast, with little waste. That is why this extraction idea is  really only for the fanatics.

Collect and save the filtrate liquids. Heat the slurry (the mush in the filter paper) one or two more times with the 190 proof as before, filter, and accumulate
the liquids of the extractions.

Inexpensive dust-pollen masks make excellent filters for the slurry. These are available at hardware, drug and paint stores. They are usually white or tan colored, fit over the nose and mouth and are held on to the face by a rubber band attached to the filter. Fashion the filter over the mouth of a drinking glass. Squeeze the filter and slurry to extract the alcohol. There are many details to deal with, but doing it once reveals them all. Experience is the best teacher. Store the extracted alcohol in a fresh bottle.

EVAPORATION AND CONCENTRATION
Combine the alcohol extracts into a glass. Place a small electric fan (small desk clip on fans are perfect) near the glass and point the air flow directly down into the glass until the surface of the alcohol ripples. This will speed the evaporation and concentration. The process will take several hours. The more alcohol extract – the longer the evaporation time. As the alcohol evaporates and the level recedes down into the glass, wash the residue that adheres to the inside of the glass back into the solution. Any fumes that are generated will be harmless because the alcohol is a non poisonous drinkable spirit. Keep flames away from the solution – pure alcohol is very flammable.

One can also use heat to evaporate and concentrate the elixir. Use a double boiler type of set up to heat and evaporate off the alcohol to concentrate the elixir.

The concentrated shroom liqueur will have a pungent mushroomy aroma (like fungi perfume). Also, a white crystalline kind of precipitate will form in the alcohol elixir (see
above photo). Store it in small screw cap bottles or vials in the freezer. Alcohol doesn’t freeze solid and will remain liquid.

SUPPLY LIST

  • shrooms
  • 190 proof ethyl alcohol (GOLDEN GRAIN – EVERCLEAR ect)
  • Pyrex glass wide mouth slurry soaking vessel
  • funnel and filtering set up – or
  • dust-pollen masks
  • small desk fan

Pro Tips

  1. Use warm-hot temps when soaking the initial slurry (shroom-alki). Use the hot water bath idea from the Gottlieb tek below. Avoid hot bottomed slurry soak vessels. The good stuff can bake on and stick very easily.
  2. A good filter is a must. Lab quality filter paper helps for a cleaner extract (less shroom stuff). The fanatic should get a little bottle top vacuum filtering funnel with a hand squeeze vacuum pump and fine slow flow filtering papers. (science supply – not cheap – but affordable for the fanatics – look for the 47 millimeter filter sized set ups – small but perfect for this).
  3. When filtering the slurry, do it while it is hot.
  4. The crystals when heated in the initial slurry are free base molecules. In the final liqueur on cool down, the free base molecules will coalesce and form crystals. It takes a day or two for the process to be complete. The smaller the final amount of liqueur, the easier it is for the molecules to meet each other and combine. When you get your final magic liqueur, the free base psilocybin will coalesce and form whitish crystals. At first they might look like whitish glue, but they transform in solution to hard crystals.
  5. The final elixir will have a layer of crystals on the bottom of the storage vessel. The freebase Psilocybin molecules come together fast in the cool alcohol. When it is time for dosage, reheat the crystal liqueur in its storage vessel in a pot of hot water. Boil the liqueur and stir and scrape deposits from the glass as the liqueur boils lightly. Alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water. Keep the storage vessel off the bottom of the boiling water pot. Direct heat is very bad for the elixir, making it stick. As the liqueur boils, the crystals will remelt with time.  The large particles of the crystals can be crushed with a long needle probe to hurry up the process. When the crystals are gone, administer the magic liqueur while it is HOT. Using a syringe enables uniformity and accuracy of the dosages. The hot liqueur quickly becomes cloudy on slight cooling. So a hot temp of the liqueur with re-melted crystals is important for accurate dosage administration. Or the crystals can be dried and used as they are!
  6. Or, the crystalline extract can be completely dried by placing the elixir container in front of a small fan to get most of the liquid out. To complete the drying, desiccant is recommended. Place the small vessel of liquid extract into a larger jar with quality desiccant. It takes several days to complete drying, but the final crystalline substance is very dry, loose, and can be weighed and worked with very easily.

 


DOSAGE and STORAGE

Getting crystals is really moot. I think the following scheme for dosing and storage is the only way to go. With this way, one doesn’t have to deal with the problems of crystallization
and other things related. Plus, the dry crystals would be much more prone to potency loss if left dry. If they are in an alcohol solution, that would be better for preservation.

As an example, one can start with 20 grams of dried shrooms. After the filtration of the hot slurry, the resultant liqueur should be put into an evaporation vessel and with a fan blowing
air across the mouth of the vessel, the liqueur should be evaporated down to about 50 milliliters. Then, in a double boiler, heat the small amount of liqueur to put the crystals and extract back into a cloudy solution. Then while it is hot, dispense 10 cc of the liqueur into waiting small storage jars with watertight caps. Each small jar is allowed to cool, the cap is put on and the jar is placed into the freezer for storage. Then when it is time to trip, the desired jars are removed from the freezer, allowed to warm to room temps, the lids taken off, a small fan set up blowing air across the jars mouths and the liquor evaporated off to a manageable “hit”. The small jars then become administration “spoons” – where the entire contents (alcohol – water – and extract) can be polished off with the tongue.


THE PSILOCYBIN PRODUCERS GUIDE
by Adam Gottlieb 1976

Solvent: Methanol

EXTRACTION

Crumble and pulverize the dried mycelial material and combine each 100 mg of this material with 10 ml of methanol. Place the flask in a hot water bath for four hours. Filter the liquids with suction through a filter paper in a buchner funnel with Celite to prevent clogging. Collect and save the filtrate liquids. Heat the slurry (the mush in the filter paper) two more times in methanol as before, filter, and accumulate the liquids of the three extractions. To be certain that all of the alkaloids have been extracted do a small extraction with a portion of the used slurry and test with Keller’s reagent (glacial acetic acid, ferrous chloride, and concentrated sulfuric acid). If there is a violet indication, alkaloids are still present and further extraction is in order.

In an open beaker evaporate the liquids to total dryness with a hot water bath or by applying a hair dryer. Be certain that all traces of methanol have been removed. The remaining residue should contain 25-50 percent psilocybin/psilocin mixture. Greater purification can be achieved, but would require other solvents and chromatography equipment and is hardly necessary.

Each 100 grams of dried mycelium should yield about 2 grams of extracted material. This should contain at least 500 mg of psilocybin/psilocin mixed or about fifty 10 mg doses. Theoretically psilocin should have the same effect upon the user as psilocybin. The only difference between the two is that the later has a phosphate bond which disappears immediately after assimilation in the body. In other words, in the body psilocybin turns into psilocin. Psilocybin is a fairly stable compound, but psilocin is very
susceptible to oxidization. It is best to keep the extracted material in a dry air tight container under refrigeration. A sack of silica-gel can be placed in the container to capture any moisture that may enter.

DOSAGE

The standard dose of psilocybin or psilocin for a 150 lb person is a 6-20 mg dose. We will figure the average dose as 10 mg. The crude alkaloid extraction process given here yields a brownish crystalline powder that is at least 25 percent pure. Each mason jar should contain at least 50 grams of wet mycelium. After drying this would be about 5 grams of material. The
crude material extracted from this should contain 25-30 mg of psilocybin/ psilocin or roughly 2-3 hits. This yield may very to some extent depending upon several factors. Many of these species contain less of these alkaloids than dose Psilocybe cubensis and the alkaloidal content of this species may very in different strains. Cultivation conditions have alot to do with yield too. Higher temperatures (75 degrees F.) cause more rapid growth but lesser psilocybin content than do lower temperatures (70 degrees F.) One must test each new batch of extracted material to determine the proper distribution of dosages. Depending on the potency of the mycelia and how well the extraction was conducted the dose may range between 25 and 100 mg. Also bear in mind that the dose varies for different individuals.


PAUL STAMETS

Solvent: Ethanol

Paul Stamets – 1996 – book – “PSILOCYBIN MUSHROOMS of the WORLD”. Quote – page 50-51:
“Another method I have seen is to soak crushed mushrooms in 75+% ethanol. After two to three days, the roughage can be filtered, leaving a dark-blue elixir that can be decanted accordingly. For every fresh 5 grams of mushrooms, 25-30 milliliters of alcohol is recommended. Psilocybin and psilocin dissolve into this solvent, and the alcohol also acts as a preservative. I really don’t have much experience with this technique, but have talked to people who say it is their preferred method. Some call this “blue juice.”

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Bulk Spawn and Casing Tek

Tamping substrate with a gloved hand

Items we'll need to case our bulk spawn corn. Drop cloth, corn jars, alcohol, saran wrap. 9x13 baking pans we'll use to case our bulk spawn in.

 

What we’ll need to create 4 13×9 birthday cakes.

2 x 6lb coir, vermiculite, & gypsum bulk substrate bags or your favorite equivalent.
basic 9x13 baking pan2 x 1qt Colonized Grain spawn jars.  We’ll split the colonized corn between the two pans.
4 x 13×9 baking pans. You’re looking for a basic Steel or aluminum rolled edge baking pan with no handles on the ends.

1 x pair of gloves.
70% alcohol spritz bottle.
plastic wrap with a slide cutter.
Cardboard, newspaper, etc to catch crumbs and make cleanup easier.

Sterilize

Place the four pans in the oven and bake them at 350° for 30 min.
Cheap steel baking pans are great. They’re easy to sterilize, compact while colonizing, no plastic liners required, and they slip in and out of your monotub without a mess. This minimizes the cleaning required to ready a monotub.

Mix (Spawning Grain to Bulk Substrate)rolled bagMixing 1 corn jar with 1 6lb bulk spawn bag.

While your pans are cooling, dump the contents of 1qt corn jar into your bulk spawn bag.  Roll the top down on your bag and mix corn and substrate together by squeezing the outside of the bag and shaking vigorously. A really good mix helps the mushy colonize the entire cake quickly. Increasing your chances for a successful grow.

Pour

Pour the substrate grain mix into the first two pans. Pat the mix to sculpt a smooth even top. Swipe your hand left and right if necessary to even things out.

Cover

Wrap half the width of the the cling wrap over your cake and continue looping under then over the pan two more times until it’s completely covered end to end. It will feel a little awkward at first.  This is done to keep moisture in the substrate and block out contaminants while the cake colonizes. Leave at least half a width of the cling wrap loose off the end for air exchange.  We highly recommend keeping spawn pans in a room with an air scrubber while they colonize.

Conclusion

With this simple tek you can reliably make contamination free bulk substrate cakes.  Once you’re cakes have completed colonizing drop them into your favorite monotub.

 

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How to Melt Agar

How to melt agar being demonstrated in a hot water bath.

Mushyluv’s guide to our 3 favorite ways to melt agar.

Hot Water Bath:Using hot water bath to melt agar. Agar bottle sitting in 2 inches of water.

  • Fill a pot with 1-2″ of water.
  • Heat the water until it is gently boiling.
  • Loosen the cap on your agar bottle and place it into the hot water bath.
  • Monitor the bottle’s progress until it has completely melted.
  • Do a swirl test to see if you’re lump free.

Swirl Test

Using protective gloves, tighten the cap and swirl the bottom of the bottle to check for lumps. If your agar needs additional melting time, loosen the cap and heat for 5-10 additional minutes.  Repeat until completely melted.

Mushy IconWhen your bottle comes out of the microwave, it will be around 200°f.  Cool to 120°f or below before it’s safe to pour agar plates.

Microwave Melting Agar:

  • Loosen the cap to your bottle (very important) Never microwave a sealed container with liquid in it.
  • Place your agar container on a plate and microwave 6 minutes at power level 3.
  • Watch for boiling  to occur.
  • Verify the agar’s heated evenly with a swirl test.

Wearing hand protection, tighten the cap and swirl to check for lumps. If your agar requires additional de-lumping, loosen the cap and microwave for  1 minute at medium power.  Repeat until everything is completely melted.

Mushy IconWhen your bottle comes out of the microwave, it will be around 200°f.  Cool to 120°f or below before pouring agar plates.

Autoclave/Pressure Cooker:

Loosen the cap on the agar bottle and pressure cook the bottle at 15 psi for five minutes. While wearing protective gloves, carefully remove the hot bottle and cool the molten agar to 120°f before pouring plates or slants.

At what temperature does agar liquify?

Agar liquifies around 104°f.  To keep agar in a liquid state for an extended period of time, setup a water bath by filling a pan with an 1″-2″ of water and set the burner temp to the lowest setting (Lo).

Storage:

You don’t have to use the entire pre-sterilized agar bottle at one time.   Pour as many plates as you need. When finished, make sure the cap is on tight to prevent contamination and drying between uses.  The sides of your bottle may draw in as it cools.  Re-heat as many times as needed. Bottled sterilized agar can be stored at room temperature for months. Never put agar in the freezer as It will cause the agar to breakdown and become unusable. To prevent contamination, keep all bottles and petri dishes sealed until ready to use.

bottle of pre-sterilized-agar.

 

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Mushyluv Oven Pour Glass Petri Dish Tek

Oven Pour Tek by mushyluv.com

oven pour tek

Our oven pour tek makes pouring a few glass petri dishes easy.

Begin by setting your glass petri dishes lid down dish up alternating on your top oven rack.  Add tinfoil if you’re worried about spilling or dropping a dish.

Bake petri dishes @  320°f for 30 minutes. This will sufficiently sterilize your glass petri dishes.

Once sterilization has completed, set your oven temp to 190° and wait until the oven cools to the target temp.

REMEMBER: Use common sense when working around a hot oven at any temperature.

You can now pour your sterilized agar into your petri dishes.  Once you’ve completed pouring,  using an oven mitt or clean cloth place the lids back on your petri dishes and close the oven door.

Let the oven and your petri dishes cool to room temp and you’ve got sterile media petri dishes ready to go.

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Tips for making a Still Air Box SAB

Mushyluv's porthole glove box kit. White. Installed in an SAB-mini still air glove box.

Begin by determining if you want your lid to be the top or bottom of your SAB. Orient your tote accordingly.

Note: Due of the rounded edges common to most totes used for SABs, It’s important you don’t install your ports any closer than 3/4″ from the edge of your tote. The cutout template makes it easy to visualize how your ports will look installed and any safe cutting distances.

Select the the distance apart for your arm ports (Relative to the floor of your SAB)

Mark the desired centers of your arm ports. You can use your cutout template to help visualize where your arm ports will fit best. Draw the port hole circle cut out guides onto your SAB with a sharpie using the template.

How do I cut out ports for my still air box?

Note: Cutting polypropylene and polyethylene totes can be a tricky. They have a tendency to crack and split when drilling or cutting. The following suggestions can help minimize  chances of splitting.

ez-SAB-port cut out template download (a preprinted template is included with your order as well.)Mushy Icon
When printing the cut out template, It’s important you tell the acrobat print dialogue to print “Actual size“. This insures the template is dimensionally correct. Test your template by placing it over your port threads.

The two options that are the least likely to cause cracking and splitting when cutting out your sab port holes:

Hot knife for cutting Still Air Box
Hot Knife sab port plastic cutter tool. (safest) #ad
4.5" 115mm still air box arm port hole saw.
4.5″ 115mm still air box arm port hole saw. (quickest) #ad

Hot Knife:

plastic build up around port hole after hot knife cut
Click to enlarge

You may notice plastic build up occurring on either side of your cut.  Once the newly cut port hole has cooled to room temp, take a razor blade or sharp utility knife and run it along the edge of your port hole.  Be especially careful not to cut yourself. The razor blade should trim off the excess leaving a noticeably cleaner edge around your port hole.

4.5″ (115mm) hole saw

When using a hole saw always make sure the tote’s surface you are drilling into is supported by wood or similar sturdy material underneath. Very important to prevent cracking.  If the hole saw binds when drilling out the arm port, stop and clear the cut of debris. Re-center your hole saw and complete the cut with the drill in reverse.

The Next safest bet in cutting out your port holes:

3.) Drill (a bunch of) tiny holes into the sharpie circle outlines you drew on your SAB. The smaller the drill bit the better and the more holes the better. Think 7/64″ or smaller on the drill bit. Be careful when drilling not to apply too much pressure to the bit.  Excessive bending of the plastic could lead to a split.

Two options:

A) Cut between the holes with a heated utility knife. Place the blade of the utility knife over a candle, cigarette lighter, or similar heat source then drag the heated knife cutting hole-to-hole until it cools and stops cutting. Re-heat the knife blade and continue the process until you’ve cut out the entire circle.

B) Clip between the holes (if you’ve drilled them close enough together) using flush cutter snips such as these: https://amzn.to/3m3xmwe (#ad)

This is a tedious process and will produce a ragged edged hole. No problem, simply clean up the hole as best you can pulling off any loose plastic bits from the process. As long as you don’t go way outside the template lines, the lip of your ez-SAB-port will cover up the ragged edges beautifully.

Install guides for optional glove port configuration :

elbow length Poly gloves (included): ez-SAB-glove install guide
Latex gloves (not included): – Latex glove install guide

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speed up depressurizing/cooling your pressure cooker

cooling your pressure cooker by adding a cast iron pan heat sink

A safe way to accelerate cooling your pressure cooker is to add a heat sink.  Flip a cast iron pan on its face and set the pressure cooker on top.  The pressure cooker will rapidly transfer a portion of its heat into the cast iron pan.  Now you have a larger surface area to radiate the heat away from the pressure cooker speeding up cool down time. For additional cooling consider adding a desk fan.

pressure-cooker-on-cast-ironpressure-cooker-on-aluminum-bowl